Nail mycosis, more commonly known as a fungal nail infection, is a prevalent condition affecting many people worldwide. While it may seem minor, nail mycosis can cause significant discomfort and embarrassment. 

Understanding the causes, symptoms, and available treatment options for this condition is essential for those seeking relief and wanting to restore the health of their nails.

In this article, we will look into the details of nail mycosis, including its underlying causes, telltale signs, and symptoms, as well as various treatment options to help individuals combat this frustrating infection effectively.

Also see Candida Overgrowth Symptoms and Understanding Scalp Psoriasis!

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What is Nail Mycosis?

Nail mycosis, also known as onychomycosis or fungal nail infection, is a common condition that affects the nails.

It is caused by various types of fungi, including dermatophytes, yeast, and molds. 

Nail mycosis typically starts as a small white or yellow spot under the tip of the nail and gradually spreads throughout the entire nail if left untreated.

The fungi responsible for nail mycosis thrive in warm, moist environments such as public showers, swimming pools, and gyms. 

They can enter through small cuts or breaks in the skin around the nails. Poor hygiene practices like not keeping your feet clean and dry can also contribute to its development. 

Additionally, individuals with weakened immune systems or certain medical conditions like diabetes are more susceptible to nail mycosis.

If left untreated, this condition can worsen over time, leading to complications such as permanent damage to the affected nails or spreading the infection to other parts of your body.

Causes of Nail Mycosis


Dermatophytes are fungal organisms that require keratin for growth. This means they can affect any part of the body with keratin tissues, such as skin, hair, and nails.

According to research, they are responsible for up to 90% of all cases of toenail fungal infection. 

These microscopic organisms thrive in warm and moist environments commonly found in public places like swimming pools, locker rooms, and showers. 

They can penetrate through tiny cuts or separations between the nail plate and bed, causing an infection that gradually spreads across multiple nails if left untreated.

Candida albicans

Candida albicans is a type of yeast that naturally resides in our bodies, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and mucous membranes. 

Under normal circumstances, it coexists harmoniously with other microorganisms without causing any harm. 

However, factors like a weak immune system can disrupt this balance, leading to an overgrowth of Candida albicans and subsequent infections.

Candida albicans have been shown to cause Candidal onychomycosis, a fungal nail infection caused specifically by Candida albicans. 

This form of onychomycosis accounts for approximately 20% of all diagnosed cases. 

Unlike dermatophyte-related infections, candidal onychomycosis tends to affect fingernails more frequently than toenails. Foods To Avoid When You Have A Yeast Infection.


Molds are multicellular fungi that thrive in moist environments. They often appear as fuzzy or powdery growths with colors ranging from green, blue, black, or white. 

Molds can be found indoors and outdoors – in soil, decaying organic matter, and even on food.

They are also moisture-loving organisms, and nails provide an ideal environment for them to grow due to the warm and damp nature inside shoes or socks. 

Once inside the nail bed, molds release enzymes that break down keratin – a protein component of nails – enabling them to feed off it and grow rapidly.

Poor hygiene

When proper foot hygiene practices are neglected, it creates an ideal breeding ground for fungi on our nails.

Poor hygiene may include:

  • Lack of Regular Cleaning: One major factor contributing to the increased risk of nail mycosis is the lack of regular cleaning and maintenance of your feet. Failure to wash and dry your feet thoroughly provides fungi with ample opportunity to multiply and invade your nails.
  • Wearing Damp Shoes or Socks: Wearing shoes or socks that have not completely dried from previous use can also increase your risk of developing nail mycosis. Moisture trapped inside footwear promotes fungal growth, which can then easily transfer onto your nails when worn again.
  • Insufficient Ventilation: Insufficient ventilation for your feet leads to excessive sweating, which further contributes to fungal growth on nails. Tight-fitting shoes or non-breathable materials prevent air circulation around the toes, creating a favorable environment for fungi.
  • Sharing Personal Items: Sharing personal items such as towels, socks, shoes, or nail clippers with infected individuals significantly heightens the risk of contracting nail mycosis through direct contact with contaminated surfaces.
  • Public Places & Communal Facilities: Public places like swimming pools, gyms, locker rooms, and saunas – where many people walk barefoot – are hotspots for fungal infections. 
  • Poor Foot Care: Poor foot care, such as trimming nails too short or failing to maintain good hygiene practices during pedicures, can lead to minor injuries that create entry points for fungi to invade.
  • Sweaty feet: People with excessively sweaty feet tend to be more susceptible to fungal infections because excessive moisture provides an ideal breeding ground for fungi.
  • Trauma/injury: Any damage caused by repetitive pressure or direct injury may compromise the integrity of your nails’ protective barrier against fungus invasion.
  • Weakened immunity: Individuals with weakened immune systems due to conditions like diabetes, HIV/AIDS, or certain medications have a higher risk of developing nail mycosis.

Symptoms of Nail Mycosis

Recognizing the early signs of nail mycosis condition is crucial for seeking timely treatment. Here are some common symptoms associated with this condition.

1. Thickened Nails

One of the primary symptoms of nail mycosis is the thickening of the affected nails. This occurs due to an overgrowth of fungus underneath the nail bed, leading to changes in its structure and texture. The thickness might make trimming or cutting the affected nails difficult.

2. Discoloration

Another noticeable symptom is discoloration of the nails. Infected nails often turn yellowish, brownish, or even greenish due to fungal invasion. 

The discoloration typically starts at the tips and gradually spreads toward the base if left untreated.

3. Brittle or Crumbly Nails

Fungal infection weakens your nails’ structure and makes them brittle or crumbly over time. 

So you may notice that your infected toenails or fingernails break easily without much force applied.

4. Distorted Shape

The growth pattern of infected nails may become distorted due to fungal activity beneath them. The edges might become irregular or jagged, making your nails look deformed compared to their natural shape.

5. Foul Odor

As the fungal infection progresses, it can cause a foul odor emanating from your affected nails due to bacterial involvement along with fungi colonization underneath them.

6. Pain and Discomfort

In the advanced stages of nail mycosis, you may experience pain while wearing shoes or walking due to the pressure exerted on the infected nails. 

The infection can also cause sensitivity and tenderness around the nail bed, making it uncomfortable to touch.

7. Separation of Nail from Bed

In severe cases, the nail might separate partially or completely from its nail bed, a condition known as onycholysis. This separation is often accompanied by pain and may expose underlying skin to further infections.

Diagnosis and Treatment Options

Diagnosis of Nail Mycosis:

Physical Examination

A dermatologist or podiatrist will visually inspect the affected nails to observe any characteristic signs such as discoloration (yellowish-brown), thickening, crumbling, or an abnormal shape.

Laboratory Tests

a) Microscopic Examination: The doctor may collect nail clippings or debris from beneath the affected nail(s) and examine them under a microscope to identify the presence of fungi.

b) Culture Test: A sample of the affected nail may be sent to a laboratory where it is cultured in specific media to promote fungal growth. This helps identify the exact type of fungus causing the infection.

Other Diagnostic Techniques

a) Dermoscopy: Using a handheld device called a dermoscope, doctors can magnify and closely examine the affected nails for characteristic patterns associated with nail mycosis.

b) PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction): This technique amplifies DNA sequences specific to fungal pathogens in order to detect their presence accurately.

Treatment Options for Nail Mycosis:

Topical Antifungal Medications:

Over-the-counter antifungal creams or ointments containing active ingredients like amorolfine or ciclopirox can be applied directly on affected nails.

Prescription-strength topical medications such as efinaconazole or tavaborole might be recommended by healthcare professionals for more severe cases.

Oral Antifungal Medications:

Oral medications like terbinafine, itraconazole, or fluconazole are prescribed for moderate to severe cases of nail mycosis. These medications work systemically and require regular intake for several weeks or months.

Regular blood tests may be necessary during oral antifungal treatment to monitor liver function.

Laser Treatment:

 Laser therapy has gained popularity as a non-invasive alternative to traditional treatments like topical creams or oral medications that often yield limited results. This innovative approach utilizes specific wavelengths of light energy that target the fungus while leaving surrounding healthy tissues unharmed.

How to Prevent Nail Mycosis

While treating nail mycosis can be challenging and time-consuming, several preventive measures can be taken to reduce your risk of developing this bothersome condition.

1. Maintain Good Foot Hygiene

Proper foot hygiene plays a crucial role in preventing fungal infections. Ensure you wash your feet thoroughly with soap and warm water daily. 

Pay extra attention to the spaces between your toes, as fungi thrive in moist environments. 

After washing, dry your feet completely using a clean towel or a hairdryer in low heat settings.

Moreover, a hair drier gives fungus less time to take root and develop. So you may want to use it more often.

2. Keep Your Nails Trimmed and Clean

Trimming your nails regularly helps prevent dirt buildup and reduces the chances of fungal growth under the nails. 

Use clean nail clippers or scissors specifically designed for trimming nails. 

Avoid cutting them too short or rounding the corners excessively to minimize the potential injury that may facilitate infection.

3. Wear Breathable Footwear

Closed-toe shoes made from non-breathable materials like plastic or rubber create an ideal environment for fungus growth due to increased moisture retention. 

Opt for breathable footwear such as cotton socks and shoes made from natural materials like leather or canvas that allow proper airflow and moisture evaporation.

4. Avoid Sharing Personal Items:

Sharing personal items such as towels, socks, shoes, or nail clippers increases the risk of spreading fungal infections among individuals if one person is already infected. 

To prevent nail mycosis transmission, make sure you have separate personal items designated only for yourself and avoid borrowing someone else’s belongings.

Home Remedies for Nail Mycosis

Tea Tree Oil

Tea tree oil has powerful antifungal properties that can effectively eliminate nail fungus. 

To use it as a remedy, mix equal parts of tea tree oil and carrier oil (such as coconut or olive oil), then apply the mixture to the affected nails using a cotton ball or swab. 

Repeat this process twice daily until you see improvement.

Apple Cider Vinegar

Apple cider vinegar contains acidic compounds that create an inhospitable environment for fungi to thrive. 

Mix equal parts of apple cider vinegar and water in a basin or bowl and soak your affected nails in the solution for 15-20 minutes daily. 

Rinse thoroughly afterward and pat dry.

Baking Soda

Baking soda helps neutralize the pH level around your toenails, preventing fungal growth. 

Create a paste by mixing baking soda with water and gently apply it to the infected nails using a soft brush or toothbrush.

Leave it on for about 10-15 minutes before rinsing off with warm water.


Garlic possesses natural antifungal properties that can aid in treating nail mycosis effectively. 

Crush a few garlic cloves into a paste and apply it directly onto the affected areas of your nails. 

Cover with a clean bandage or gauze and leave it overnight before washing off in the morning.

When to See a Doctor

While some mild cases of mycosis can be managed at home with over-the-counter treatments or home remedies, it is essential to know when it’s time to seek medical assistance. 

Here are some crucial indication

  • Persistent Symptoms despite using various treatment options
  • Severe Symptoms:
  • Spread of Infection beyond its initial site or if new lesions appear in different areas of your body 
  • Individuals who repeatedly experience mycosis infections despite adequate treatment 

Final Thoughts

Understanding nail mycosis is essential for early detection and effective treatment.

The causes of this condition can range from fungal infections to underlying medical conditions, making it crucial to address any underlying issues. 

By being aware of the symptoms, individuals can seek timely medical intervention and prevent further complications. 

Treatment options include topical or oral antifungal medications and laser therapy. Natural remedies can also help alleviate symptoms.

However, prevention remains the best approach by maintaining good hygiene practices and avoiding exposure to damp environments. 

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